Anemia, types, causes, risk factors, symptoms and treatment
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.
Types of anemia
Anemia due to B12 deficiency Anemia due to foliate deficiency
Anemia due to iron deficiency Anemia of chronic disease
Hemolytic anemia Idiopathic a-plastic anemia
Megaloblastic anemia Pernicious anemia
Secondary aplastic anemia Sickle cell anemia
Causes and risk factors
While many parts of the body help make red blood cells, most of the work is done in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form blood cells.
Healthy red blood cells last between 90 and 120 days. Parts of your body then remove old blood cells. A hormone called erythropoietin made in your kidneys signals your bone marrow to make more red blood cells.
Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein inside red blood cells. It gives red blood cells their red color. People with anemia do not have enough hemoglobin.
Possible causes of anemia include:
Chronic diseases such as cancer, ulcerative colitis, or rheumatoid arthritis
Genetics: Some forms of anemia, such as Thalassemia, can be inherited
Blood loss (for example, from heavy menstrual periods or stomach ulcers)
Problems with bone marrow such as lymphoma, leukemia, or multiple myeloma
Problems with the immune system that cause the destruction of blood cells (hemolytic anemia)
Surgery to the stomach or intestines that reduces the absorption of iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid
Too little thyroid hormone (underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism)
Possible symptoms include:-
1 Chest pain
2 Dizziness or light-headedness (especially when standing up or with activity)
3 Fatigue or lack of energy
5 Problems concentrating
6 Shortness of breath (especially during exercise)
Treatment should be directed at the cause of the anemia, and may include:-
1 Blood transfusions
2 Corticosteroids or other medicines that suppress the immune system
3 Erythropoietin, a medicine that helps your bone marrow make more blood cells
4 Supplements of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, or other vitamins and minerals.