CAREERS IN MEDICINE

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ntroduction
Medicine is one of the most sought after and rewarding hi3s for those interested in science and dealing with sick people. Over the years, the field of medical studies has undergone various stages of development; it has become so vast that specializations within it are increasing day by day. There is great scope for medicine as a professional hi3. Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies health science, biomedical research, and medical technology to diagnose and treat injury and disease, typically through medication, surgery, or some other form of therapy.

Nature of work
Medical doctors diagnose and treat diseases and injuries and perform an important function in looking after the well-being of the community.
Thorough knowledge of diseases and their symptoms are required for diagnosis and treatment. Medical doctor use several techniques and apparatus in their examinations in order to form an image of the disease or injury. It is important that all factors are taken into consideration before a diagnosis is made. Treatment can be medical, surgical and therapeutic. Medical doctors sometimes refer a patient for further diagnosis and special treatment. A diagnosis follows certain steps.
Firstly the doctor takes into account the medical history of specific cases of illness or problems mentioned by the patient together with information regarding his/her previous illness and any illness of relatives. Then they keep the patient under close vigil during the course of treatment, conduct regular checkups and examine the patient’s physical status using clinical skills and order or perform laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures; assess the findings and finally make a diagnosis. Based on their findings they recommend suitable treatment of the
patient, which may involve recommendations on life style changes prescribing medicine or giving medication, vaccinating against infections or contagious diseases, or in the case of injuries or otherwise closing wounds, removing foreign bodies or setting broken limbs. Part of their work also includes giving counseling to patients on diet, exercise, avoidance of detrimental habits such as smoking and consumption of alcohol, and overall health maintenance. Specific nature of work depends upon the specialization areas.

Specializations
Specializations in a particular branch of Medicine have become a necessity. Advanced Specializations include plastic surgery, neurosurgery, cardio – thoracic surgery, canitourinary surgery, pediatric surgery, gastroenterology, endocrinology and clinical hematology. The major areas of specializations include the following:

Specialization Nature of Work
General Medicine Deals with general diseases
General surgery Conducts surgery etc.
Pediatrics Deals with children, from new-born to adolescents
Cardiology Deals with ailments and diseases of the heart
Obstetrics and Gynecology Deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders in females reproductive system during prenatal, natal and post natal period. Gynecologist diagnosis and conducts treatment of diseases and disorders of female genital organs.
Neurology They handle the treatment of problems related to nervous system and other problems in human body, arising from disorders in human brain
Dermatology Dermatology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of skin and related problems
ENT ENT specialists deal with diseases and disorders of ear, nose and throat. These 3 organs are physiologically interconnected and so one specialist can handle nasal as well as throat and ear ailments.
Psychiatry This is an area of specialization that diagnoses and treats mental disorders by means of counseling therapy and medication.
Endocrinology A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and management of hormonal conditions.
Hematology It is concerned with the study of blood diseases. It deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of blood and bone marrow as well as of the immunologic, homeostatic and vascular system.
Radiology Radiologists deal with diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiant energy such as X-rays, CT scanning, ultrasound etc.
Pathology Pathologists deal with interpreting microscopic views of body tissues, blood, urine etc.
Orthopedics Orthopedics deal with correction of injuries or disorders of the skeletal system, muscles and joints etc
Urology Urologists are specialized in diseases of the urinary organs in females and urinary track and sex organs in males.
Nephrology Nephrologists are specialized in diagnosing and treating patients having problems related to high blood pressure, kidneys, fluid retention and electrolyte imbalance.
Gastroenterology Gastroenterologist deals with study, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of digestive system and intestine.
Anesthesiology Anesthetist is specialized in administering anesthetic drugs during surgery and operation.

Personal attributes
Prospective medical doctors must love working with people and have an interest in their well being. They must be emotionally balanced, patient, tactful and calm. They must be able to work fast, accurately, make quick decisions, carry responsibility and work under a great deal of pressure. They must also be physically fit, since they often work long and irregular hours. In no other profession, a high level of mental ability, scientific temper, technical and human skills are so thoroughly integrated as in healthcare profession. The job demands good memory, the ability to integrate knowledge from various sources, keen observation and quick interpretation. The ability to take crucial decisions, self-motivation, amiable and sympathetic temperament are also essential. A doctor is also expected to possess a strong sense of responsibility as the patient’s life depends entirely on him.
In addition those who take up surgery must possess high concentration, manual and finger dexterity and stamina, and the ability to stand on their feet continuously for several hours.

Employment opportunities
There is no dearth of jobs or opportunities for a medical practitioner. No matter how the job market fluctuations are the need for medical health cuts across all boundaries, Medical professionals are absorbed in both private and government hospitals, clinics and prevention centre. Schools and organizations, both public and private sectors, keeps a panel of doctors for their employees well being. Doctors can also associate themselves with many hospitals as visiting professionals. Many of them also prefer to have their own private practice in their clinics.

How to enter
A student having qualified in 10+2 with PCB can go for undergraduate studies in Medical Sciences where he can do Bachelor’s degree programme in Medicine and Surgery (MBBS). The duration of the course is 51/2 yrs including internship.

Major Entrance Tests

CBSE AIPMT The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Delhi conducts an entrance test – CBSE PMT Exam – for filling 15% government quota seats under Government of India. The entrance test is conducted for admission into the undergraduate courses in the field of medical (MBBS) and dental (BDS) sciences. The candidates can appear for the entrance test only three times, as per the norms of the Board. The aspirants must have passed 10+2 with not less than 50% marks (40% marks for SC-PH/ST-PH/OBC-PH) in aggregate in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English, from any Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or any other recognized Board. The CBSE PMT Exam or All India Pre Medical Test is being conducted at two stages-Preliminary examination and Final Examination. Preliminary: Phy & Chem (100) Bot & Zoo (100) Time: 3 hrs Negative Marking ¼, MM: 800, Final exam. Phy (30), Chem (30), Chem (30) & Bio (60) Time: 3 hrs MM:480
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) New Delhi The colleges for which the test is conducted are-LHMC, MAMC, GTB Hospital and University College of Medical Sciences. To appear in the test a candidate must qualify in 10+2 with at least 50% aggregate from a recognized school within the NCR (regular classes). For LHMC, female candidates from outside Delhi are eligible to appear. Phy (60), Chem (60), Bot (60), G.K. (20) Time : 31/2 hrs MM: 200 Negative Marking ¼.
Delhi Pre Medical Test (DPMT) The colleges for which the test is conducted are-LHMC, MAMC, GTB, Hospital and University College of Medical Sciences. To appear in the test, a candidate must qualify in 10+2 with at least 50% aggregate from a recognized school within the NCR (Regular classes). For LHMC, female candidates from outside Delhi are eligible to appear Phy (50), Chem (50), Bot (50), Zoo (50), Time: 3 hrs, MM: 800, Negative Marking ¼.
Common Entrance Test (CET) conducted by GGSIPU The MBBS programme is offered by Vardhaman Mahavir College which is affiliated to the IP University. There are 100 seats out of which 75 are filled through the entrance test and 25 are filled through the CBSE. The entrance consists of a written exam in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Entrance exam is usually held in June.
Banaras Hindu University (BHU) Varansi This is an internationally reputed University. There are 33 medical science departments in this university. All-India Combined Competitive Written Test (PMT/PAT) is conducted by Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu Preliminary: Phy, Chem, Bot, Zoo (50 each) (Objective Type) Time: 3hrs, Negative Marking ½, MM: 400
Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore CMC is a well-known Institute for Medical Studies. The MBBS course is conducted in three stages. After completing this course, there are some classes on communications and ethics.Phy-Chem-Bio-(60 each) General Ability (120) Time: 3hrs No Negative marking.
Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) Pune The MBBS programme of Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) is affiliated to the University of Pune. Total students admitted to this programme are 130 out of which 25 are for females. All the students are liable to serve in the medical services of the Armed Forces. The written test is followed by an interview. The test is of 2 hrs duration and comprises of Biology 50, Physics 50, Chemistry 50, intelligence/logic and reasoning 25 and English language and comprehension 25 (total 200 marks). This is one of the most famous Medical Colleges in India. After completing medical course, students generally work in Armed Forces Medical Service. Most of the course fee is paid by the Armed Forces.
Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, under the aegis of AMU, runs MBBS, BDS, MD, MS, diploma and PG programs. Admissions are provided after conducting a combined Admission Test. Phy (50), Chem (50), Bio (100), MM 200, Time: 3hrs Negative Marking: ¼.
Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate
Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)
This institute, run by the Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of the Central Government, is affiliated to Pondicherry University; JIPMER provides undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral programs in medicine, surgery, paramedical courses. Phy (40), Chem (40), Bot & Zoo (80), Eng (40), MM: 200, Time: 21/2 Hrs, No negative marking.

List of Some Institutions

Name Address Website
All India Institute of Medical Science. Ansari Nagar, New Delhi www.aiims.ac.in
Armed Forces Medical College Wanowrie, Pune-411 040 www.afmc.nic.in
B,Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital & Topiwala National Medical College Dr.A.L. Nair Road, Mumbai-400 008 www.nair.edu
Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI) Fort, K.R. Road, Bangalore-560 002 www.bmcri.org
Chhatrapti ShahuJi Maharaj (CSJM) University Kanpur www.kanpuruniversity.org
Chowk, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University Lucknow-U.P. 226003 www.kgmcindia.edu
Christian Medical College Vellore-632004 www.cmch-vellore.edu
Christian Medical Ludhiana-141008 Pb. www.cmcludhiana.org/
Goa University Talegao Plateau, Goa-403206 www.unigoa.ac.in
Government Medical College & Hospital (Hospital Building), Sector 32, B, Chandigarh-160030 http://gmch.gov.in
Grant Medical College & Sir J.J. Hospital Byculla Mumbai-400 008 www.grantmedicalcollege-jjhospital.org
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Sector-16 C, Dwarka, Delhi www.ipu.ac.in
Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla-171 001 www.igmeshimla.org
Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varansi-221005 U.P. www.imsbhu.nic.in
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research Institution of National Importance, Dhanvantri Nagar, Puducherry-605 006 www.jipmer.edu/
Kasturba Medical College Manipal University, Manipal-576104 Karnataka www.manipal.edu
Lady Hardinge Medical College Bhagat Singh Road, New Delhi-110 001 www.lhmc.in
M.S. Ramaiah Medical College MSR Nagar, MSRIT Bangalore-560 054 www.msrdc.ac.in
Madras Medical College and Government General Hospital E.V.R. Periyar Salai, Park Town, Chennai-600 003 www.mmc.tn.gov.in
Maulana Azad Medical College Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, new Delhi-110002 www.mamc.ac.in
Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata 88, College Street, Kolkata-700 072 www.medicalcollegekolkata.org
NTR University of Health Science Vijaywada, Hyderabad http://59,163,116,210/
Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre Tiruvalla-689 101 www.pushpagiri.in
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