Define typhoid fever. Explain its epidemiological factors & treatment
Definition:- Typhoid fever is an acute communicable disease caused by Salmonella typhi . The disease is marked by prolonged fever, toxic symptoms& constitutional disturbances.
The term “enteric fever” includes both typhoid & paratyphoid fevers.
(1) Agent:- Salmonella typhi is responsible for 95% of cases. S. para A is responsible for about 5% of cases.
(2) Source of infection:- patients & carriers of typhoid fever
(3) Infective material:- Faeces and urine of infected persons.
(4) Age:-The diseases affects all age groups, but more commonly between 5 and 19 years.
(5) Immunity:- An attack of typhoid fever gives a fairly lasting immunity. Second attacks may also occur.
(6) Poor sanitation:- Lack of sanitation and safe water are involved in transmission.
(7) Unhygienic habits:- Open air defecation , urination, low standards of food hygiene, illiteracy & health ignorance are responsible for the endemicity of typhoid fever in India.
(8) Mode of transmission:- Faecal –oral & urine- oral routes.
(9) Incubation period:- 7 to 28 days.
Control of typhoid fever:-
Several control measures are common to all gastro-intestinal diseases. These are discussed in the section on “Control of Cholera”
The principles of control of typhoid fever are given below:-
• Treatment:-Fluroquinolone e.g.ofoxacin or ciprofloxacin, cefixime, azithromycinetc.
• Proper disposal of feaces urine.
• Disinfection of clothing , linen and fomites.
• Immunization of contents with typhoid fever
• Immunization with typhoid fever vaccine
• Provision of safe water & improvement of sanitation.
• Food sanitation:- protection of food from flies dust, preventing from carriers.
• Detection of typhoid carriers and treating them.
• Health education in matters of food & personal hygiene.
Anti typhoid vaccines:- The anti- typhoid vaccine currently manufactured in India is –
— monovalent & bivalent
— Heat killed