Nebulization therapy, Contraindication, Equipments and procedure

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Nebulization is the process of medication administration via inhalation. It utilizes a nebulizer which transports medications to the lungs by means of mist inhalation.

Nebulization therapy is used to deliver medications along the respiratory tract and is indicated to various respiratory problems and diseases such as:
• Broncho-spasms
• Chest tightness
• Excessive and thick mucus secretions
• Respiratory congestions
• Pneumonia
In some cases, nebulization is restricted or avoided due to possible untoward results or rather decreased effectiveness such as:
• Patients with unstable and increased blood pressure
• Individuals with cardiac irritability (may result to dysrhythmias)
• Persons with increased pulses
• Unconscious patients (inhalation may be done via mask but the therapeutic effect may be significantly low)
• Nebulizer and nebulizer connecting tubes
• Compressor oxygen tank
• Mouthpiece/mask
• Respiratory medication to be administered
• Normal saline solution
1. Position the patient appropriately, allowing optimal ventilation.
2. Assess and record breath sounds, respiratory status, pulse rate and other significant respiratory functions.
3. Teach patient the proper way of inhalation:
o Slow inhalation through the mouth via the mouthpiece
o Short pause after the inspiration
o Slow and complete exhalation
o Some resting breaths before another deep inhalation
4. Prepare equipments at hand
5. Check doctor’s orders for the medication, prepare thereafter
6. Place the medication in the nebulizer while adding the amount of saline solution ordered
7. Attach the nebulizer to the compressed gas source
8. Attach the connecting tubes and mouthpiece to the nebulizer
9. Turn the machine on (notice the mist produced by the nebulizer)
10. Offer the nebulizer to the patient, offer assistance until he is able to perform proper inhalation (if unable to hold the nebulizer [pediatric/geriatric/special cases], replace the mouthpiece with mask.
Possible effects and reactions after nebulization therapy are as follows:
• Palpitations
• Tremors
• Tachycardia
• Headache
• Nausea
• Broncho-spasms (too much ventilation may result or exacerbate Broncho-spasms)

As nurses, it is important that we teach the patients the proper way of doing the therapy to facilitate effective results and prevent complications (demonstration is very useful). Emphasize compliance to therapy and to report untoward symptoms immediately for apposite intervention.

Auscultatory gap is the temporary disappearance of sounds normally heard over the brachial artery when the cuff pressure is high and the reappearance of the sounds at a lower level.

Provide excellent clues to the physiological functioning of the body.
• Alterations in body flexion are reflected in the body temp, pulse, respirations and blood pressure.
• These data provide part of the baseline info from which plan of care is developed.
• Any change from normal is considered to be an indication of the person’s state of health.

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