What is the plague, its clinical manifestations, complication, diagnosis, management.
INTRODUCTION- plague epidemic had been a cause of many deaths in the world. In Bhagwat Purana and Bible also, plague is described as an epidemic.
This is also called ‘black death’. The bacteria’s are responsible for the disease pasteurella pastis. This spreads through the bite of fleas which gets the infection from sick rates. Fleas are found on rates and rodents.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS –
• Bacteria are found on wild rodents like rates, carnivorous animals, and in other smaller animals.
• In India source of plague is wild rodents. But the fleas living on rates are the fleas living on rates are the main source of plague against the disease.
• Along with infected rates and fleas, pneumonic plague patients are also responsible for the spread of the disease.
• Plague is transmitted by direct contact with the tissues of infected animals.
• Disease spreads more in winter. During heavy rain the rat holes are destroyed and the chances of spreading of plague becomes less.
INCUBATION PERIOD- This depends upon the type of plague and may range from 1 to 7 days.
CLINICAL MENIFESTATION- Three types of plague are found in humans:
The beginning of bubonic plague is sudden with fever, shivering and headache. Face and eyes turn red and person feels extremely tired. Pain and swelling develop in all the lymph glands especially in the thigh.
This plague does not spread from one person to another because infection is locked in buboes and they cannot get out.
• Smear examination of secretion of glands, fluids and sputum.
• Blood culture.
• Serum examination
Intensive bleeding, pneumonia, toxicity, death
Controlling the disease through early diagnosis, notification and isolation is the primary necessity in the management.
Streptomycin is given.
Tetracycline is also given.
Control of fleas.
Use plague vaccines.