What is Tuberculosis. Explain its epidemiological factors & treatment.

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TB is an infectious diseases. It can affects persons of all ages & both sexes, rich, poor, rural& urban. Any part of body may be affected by the diseases. This diseases occurs due to bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Agents:- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Hosts:- TB affects all age groups ,both male& females. TB affects lungs mainly but it can affect other parts of body also.
Mode of action:- TB spreads by droplet infection. Bacteria spreads in the atmosphere from the cough, sputum & sneezing of the patients and enters into the body of a healthy person through respiration.
 TB spreads more in the lower social & economic class due to illiteracy, crowded environment, unhygienic habits, etc.
 TB which affects the animals is called Bovine tuberculosis.
 TB is an important cause of death among women.
Incubation period:- 4 & 8 weeks, in some cases it may be more.
Clinical Manifestation:-
(1) Pulmonary tuberculosis :– cough for 3 weeks or more
–Fever, increase in evening temperature,
Sweating in the night
–Weight loss, loss of appetite
–Fatigue, chest pain, breathing difficulty
–Blood with sputum (Haemoptysis)
(2)TB of other organs:- TB can affect intestines, brain, bones, joints, skin , lymph glands or other tissues of the body.
Diagnostic Test:-
(1) Signs & symptoms of the patients & physical examination.
(2) Microscopic examination of sputum ( for acid fast bacilli )
(3) Chest x- ray
(4) Tuberculin test or Mantoux test
(5) Tissue biopsy
Managements:- The basic treatment of TB are—
(1) Drug
(2) Diet
(3) Proper rest
The following measures are important in protection & control of TB :-
–Identity the diseases as early as possible by test & sputum examination.
–Follow up treatment
–In order to control the diseases through chemotherapy & family coordination is necessary.
–BCG Vaccination
Medicine in TB:-
Bacteriological drugs
Streptomycin
Rifampicin (RMP)
INH
Pyrazinamid
Bacteriostatic drugs
Ethambutol
Thiocetazone

Swati Bankolia
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