Shock

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Description:-It is a syndrome condition which is characterized by decrease tissue perfusion &impaired cellular perfusion..
This results in imbalance in supply &demand of oxygen supply.
When a cell experiences a state of hypo perfusion, the demand for oxygen & nutrient exceeds the supply
Classification:-for the purpose of discussion, shock can be classified:-
1. Hypovolemic shock
2. Cardiogenic shock
3. Septic shock
4. Anaphylactic shock
5. Neurogenic shock
• Hypovolemic shock:-it is hypo perfusion condition of tissues due to decrease amount of body fluid from normal level
Many causes affect the volume of body fluid-hemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhea, excessive dieresis, burns..
• Cardiogenic shock:-cardiogenic shock caused by the dysfunctioning of the cardiac muscles which cause altered contraction of cardiac muscles.
Ultimately results decrease pumping capacity of heart…
• Neuregenic shock:-it is a haemodynamic phenomenon that can occurs within 30 minutes of a spinal cord injury at the 5th thoracic vertebra or above &last up to 6th weeks..
• Anaphylactic shock:-it is acute &life threatening condition in which hypersensitivity reaction to a sensitizing substances like drugs, vaccines, chemicals etc.
• Septic shock:-it is a systemic inflammatory response to a documented or suspected infection..
Pathophysiology:-hypovolemia due to any cause-decrease circulatory volume-decrease venous return-decrease stroke volume-decrease cardiac output-decrease cellular oxygen supply-decrease tissue perfusion…

Sign & symptoms:-
i. Decrease urine output
ii. Increase temperature
iii. Tachypnoea
iv. Cyanosis
v. Pallor skin
vi. Cool & calmy skin
vii. Decrease bowel sounds
viii. Vomiting
ix. Cramping
x. Alteration in mental status
xi. Swelling of lips
xii. Shortness of breath
xiii. Wheezing
xiv. Decrease cerebral perfusion
xv. Confusion
xvi. Edema of larynx
• Diagnosis:-
• History taking
• Physical examination
• E.c.g.
• Chest x-ray
• Continues pulse oxymetry
• Laboratory tests.
Management:-
Fluid therapy:-except for cardiogenic & neurogenic shock,all other classification of shock involve decrease circulating blood volume so for recovery fluid therapy is required.
Key words:-
Hypo perfusion
Tachypnoea
Sepsis
Hypersensitivity
Impaired
Hypovolemia…

Author: Suman meel
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